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Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)
Consistent economic growth, de-regulation, liberal investment rulse, and operational flexibility are all the factors that help increase the inflow of Foreign Direct Investment or FDI.
FDI or Foreign Direct Investment is any form of investment that earns interest in enterprises which function outside of the domestic territory of the investor.
FDIs require a business relationship between a parent company and its foreign subsidiary. Foreign direct business relationships give rise to multinational corporations. For an investment to be regarded as an FDI, the parent firm needs to have at least 10% of the ordinary shares of its foreign affiliates. The investing firm may also qualify for an FDI if it owns voting power in a business enterprise operating in a foreign country.
Types of Foreign Direct Investment: An Overview
FDIs can be broadly classified into two types: outward FDIs and inward FDIs. This classification is based on the types of restrictions imposed, and the various prerequisites required for these investments.
An outward-bound FDI is backed by the government against all types of associated risks. This form of FDI is subject to tax incentives as well as disincentives of various forms. Risk coverage provided to the domestic industries and subsidies granted to the local firms stand in the way of outward FDIs, which are also known as 'direct investments abroad.
Different economic factors encourage inward FDIs. These include interest loans, tax breaks, grants, subsidies, and the removal of restrictions and limitations. Factors detrimental to the growth of FDIs include necessities of differential performance and limitations related with ownership patterns.
Other categorizations of FDI exist as well. Vertical Foreign Direct Investment takes place when a multinational corporation owns some shares of a foreign enterprise, which supplies input for it or uses the output produced by the MNC.
Horizontal foreign direct investments happen when a multinational company carries out a similar business operation in different nations.
Foreign Direct Investment is guided by different motives. FDIs that are undertaken to strengthen the existing market structure or explore the opportunities of new markets can be called 'market-seeking FDIs.' 'Resource-seeking FDIs' are aimed at factors of production which have more operational efficiency than those available in the home country of the investor.
Some foreign direct investments involve the transfer of strategic assets. FDI activities may also be carried out to ensure optimization of available opportunities and economies of scale. In this case, the foreign direct investment is termed as 'efficiency-seeking.'
Definition of FDI
FDI in India
Benefits of FDI
Determinants of FDI
Inflows in FDI
Disadvantages of FDI
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