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Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in India
FDI has helped the Indian economy grow, and the government continues to encourage more investments of this sort – but with $5.3 billion in FDI in 2004 India gets less than 10% of the FDI of China.
Foreign direct investment (FDI) in India has played an important role in the development of the Indian economy. FDI in India has – in a lot of ways – enabled India to achieve a certain degree of financial stability, growth and development. This money has allowed India to focus on the areas that may have needed economic attention, and address the various problems that continue to challenge the country.
India has continually sought to attract FDI from the world’s major investors. In 1998 and 1999, the Indian national government announced a number of reforms designed to encourage FDI and present a favorable scenario for investors.
FDI investments are permitted through financial collaborations, through private equity or preferential allotments, by way of capital markets through Euro issues, and in joint ventures. FDI is not permitted in the arms, nuclear, railway, coal & lignite or mining industries.
A number of projects have been announced in areas such as electricity generation, distribution and transmission, as well as the development of roads and highways, with opportunities for foreign investors.
The Indian national government also provided permission to FDIs to provide up to 100% of the financing required for the construction of bridges and tunnels, but with a limit on foreign equity of INR 1,500 crores, approximately $352.5m.
Currently, FDI is allowed in financial services, including the growing credit card business. These services include the non-banking financial services sector. Foreign investors can buy up to 40% of the equity in private banks, although there is condition that stipulates that these banks must be multilateral financial organizations. Up to 45% of the shares of companies in the global mobile personal communication by satellite services (GMPCSS) sector can also be purchased.
By 2004, India received $5.3 billion in FDI, big growth compared to previous years, but less than 10% of the $60.6 billion that flowed into China. Why does India, with a stable democracy and a smoother approval process, lag so far behind China in FDI amounts?
Although the Chinese approval process is complex, it includes both national and regional approval in the same process.
Federal democracy is perversely an impediment for India. Local authorities are not part of the approvals process and have their own rights, and this often leads to projects getting bogged down in red tape and bureaucracy. India actually receives less than half the FDI that the federal government approves.
Investment in India, investment, investment planning, india